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The goal of the research conducted as part of this Masters thesis was to examine portrayals of gender roles and expectations related to the human papillomavirus HPV vaccine for men and boys in United States US newspapers within the theoretical framework of feminist theory, feminist media theory, hegemonic masculinity, and heteronormativity the presumption that heterosexuality is the dominant and only preferred sexual orientation.

Research questions include: How do US newspapers portray the HPV vaccine for heterosexual boys and men with regard to gender roles and expectations?

Arlington texas genital warts dating

Does the news information on the HPV vaccine for boys and men reinforce heteronormative gender norms? After the Gardasil vaccine was approved for girls and women instate legislators with lobbying help from Merck across the nation attempted to mandate that adolescent girls receive the vaccine. All the legislative activity led to news articles on the issue debating the HPV vaccine's benefits and possible concerns surrounding it.

As the debate began, politicians, health professionals, religious groups, women's health activists, and public health researchers jockeyed to have their views represented to the public and in the news. In general, news coverage of the vaccine has been quite gendered, as the thesis demonstrates, with most news focusing mainly, if not exclusively, on girls and women, even when the science and public health recommendations became more expansive.

Chapter 2 looks at the theories used as a framework for the research in this thesis. Chapter 3 reviews academic literature to examine what researchers have already identified about the media and the HPV vaccine for males. Chapter 4 then lays out the methodology used in this research. In short, the research examined print newspaper articles betweenwhen the US Advisory Council on Immunizations Practices ACIP first recommended the HPV vaccine for routine vaccination in boys and men ages 9 to 21 in addition to women and girls 9 to 26, through to Juneafter the ACIP expanded its recommendation to also include men ages 21 to In chapter 5, the media narratives for the vaccine and males are reported and explored.

Arlington texas genital warts dating

In brief, every article in the sample of articles contained some level of information about the HPV vaccine for boys and men. However, boys and men are still treated as an afterthought, with much of the discussion still focused on cervical cancer. Other themes include an increased focus on oral cancer There also remains a heteronormative emphasis in the newspaper portrayals, with only 4. The final chapter explores conclusions to be gleaned from this research. Overall, "[t]he articles show that reporters are still not making the connection that the human papillomavirus women contract that can lead to genital warts and cervical cancer is the same virus that can cause oral, genital, and anal cancers in both men and women This is a missed opportunity for public health officials as there are ificantly more oral cancers related to HPV diagnosed each year than cervical cancers.

The heteronormative assumptions unearthed by the research are also examined in more depth. For instance, there is a heteronormative assumption in the dialogue that while women may suffer, men are expected to be tougher and just handle the vaccine's side effects.

Arlington texas genital warts dating

Feminist media theory highlights how the news is reflecting the traditional cultural idea that men need to protect women, ignoring the fact that men are just as vulnerable to HPV-related cancers as women. After examining limitations of the study, this final chapter identifies areas for future research.

It would also be interesting to look at the awareness of HPV and the vaccine in the LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] community to see what efforts have been made to encourage MSM to receive the vaccine in lieu of mandates by looking in specific LGBT publications. The thesis concludes with some ideas for public health advisors and healthcare providers hoping to educate the public on the HPV vaccine for boys and men in order to raise vaccination rates.

For example, campaigns seeking to communicate to the public about the HPV vaccine could focus instead on the fact that to date more than 90 million doses of the vaccine have been safely administered CDC, - data that is available on the CDC websites so providers could include links for additional information on side effects.

Another recommendation is to focus communications on oral cancer instead of cervical cancer. Oral cancer is not only found in both sexes, but it also has a higher incidence rate 48, cases diagnosed per year versus 13, cases of cervical cancer. Katherine Egan Bennett. December 6, University of Texas at Arlington.

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Arlington texas genital warts dating

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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination