Seeking sex users asia

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries LMIC encourage men who have sex with men MSM partner-seeking mobile application gay app use. To investigate the sexual risk profiles of gay app users and guide future HIV prevention programs, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 1, MSM in China examining associations between gay app use and sexual behaviors, including HIV and sexually transmitted disease STD testing.

They were also more likely to report multiple recent sex partners and HIV testing, but there was no difference in condomless sex between the two groups. Future research among MSM in LMIC is needed to characterize gay app use and explore its potential for future public health interventions.

Gay bathhouses were one of a of possible venues that exacerbated the spread of HIV at that time by providing a physical risk environment where MSM could easily identify and have anonymous sex with multiple sex partners [ 1 ]. In the late s, MSM began to find sex partners using the Internet, a virtual environment that permitted additional opportunities for seeking anonymous sex partners [ 2 ]. In China, the country with the largest of Internet users worldwide, the Internet is quickly replacing traditional locations such as gay saunas and bars as the preferred site for MSM to find sex partners.

Seeking sex users asia

In recent years, the proliferation of GPS-equipped smartphones and the development of mobile phone applications apps have created new potential risk environments because men can identify anonymous sex partners who are geographically nearby in real-time. Increased use may facilitate seeking multiple sex partners or unsafe sex [ 4 ]. Many of these applications are available only through mobile phones and do not offer computer access, which reflects the increasing influence of smartphones in modern society [ 5 ].

Gay app use among MSM remains poorly understood even as smartphone use continues to grow rapidly and some evidence suggests that gay and bisexual men are adopting these mobile technologies more rapidly than the general population [ 5 ]. Understanding the demographic and risk profiles of MSM who are using gay apps could inform HIV prevention measures in two broad ways. First, additional information about the sexual risk profiles of MSM who use gay apps can increase our understanding as to what extent these users are engaging in risk behaviors and may warrant focused outreach.

Second, this information could be used to guide the growing body of Internet- and mobile phone-based health promotion efforts such as education and testing campaigns. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine socio-demographics and sexual behaviors among Chinese MSM who use gay apps compared to MSM who do not use gay apps in order to better guide future public health prevention efforts at the specific sexual risk factors in both populations.

Seeking sex users asia

The survey was both voluntary and anonymous. To be eligible, participants had to be born biologically male, 16 years of age or older age of consent in ChinaSeeking sex users asia report a history of having anal sex with another man. No personal identifying data was obtained. Ethics review committees in China and the US provided study approval and participants completed an online informed consent process. To inform survey development, we conducted 60 individual interviews with MSM and local stakeholders and partnered with sociologists from the Chinese national survey of sexual behavior.

Local MSM community-based organization members reviewed a draft survey and we conducted a pilot survey of MSM prior to the main survey launch data not included in final analysis. We collected socio-demographic data including age, education level, marital status, employment, and income. Participants were also asked about their sexual orientation, disclosure of sexual orientation to others, of sex partners in the past three months none, one, or more than oneSeeking sex users asia sex with male and female partners in the past three months none, once, or more than onceand HIV and STD lifetime testing histories.

Participants were asked if they had ever used gay apps to seek sex partners and indicated which gay apps they had used from a generated list of the most popular gay apps, with a write-in option for unlisted apps. Only gay apps were included in the analysis, excluding general social networking apps. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 22 to identify ificant correlates of gay app use among participants. We calculated variance inflation factors for employment, income, and education to assess for multicollinearity. A total of 1, MSM fulfilled eligibility criteria, of which 1, Over half the participants were between the ages of 26 and 35 years old Most MSM were single We found In our sample, most men Table 2 presents bivariate and multivariable correlates of gay app use.

Compared to MSM who did not use gay apps, MSM who used gay apps were nearly two times more likely to have had at least two male anal sex partners in the past three months aOR 1. Condomless anal sex with men in the past three months was not associated with gay app use. Gay apps have rapidly expanded social networking and partner-seeking opportunities among MSM.

Whereas computer-based Internet use permits anonymous sex partner seeking in a virtual environment, GPS-enabled mobile apps grant users increased flexibility to find nearby partners in real time. Data on gay app use among MSM are limited and have been primarily conducted among small samples of MSM in high-income settings [ 49 ]. Our study extends this literature by including a large sample from a low and middle-income country LMIC setting where most MSM do not disclose their sexual orientation.

We intentionally chose to use an anonymous online survey in an attempt to minimize much of the impact of anti-gay stigma on participants willingness to disclose sensitive information about MSM behaviors and gay app use. We found that In our sample, gay apps users were more likely to have multiple male sex partners compared with non-users, but app use was not associated with condomless sex.

Seeking sex users asia

These findings are consistent with research from Hong Kong [ 9 ] and the United States [ 4 ] showing that seeking partners via gay apps was associated with increased of sex partners, but not with greater likelihood of condomless anal sex. Gay app use was associated with having tested at least once for HIV, suggesting that app users may utilize sexual health resources at a higher rate than non-users. Pilot data from the US has demonstrated that gay app users may be more amenable to mobile HIV interventions and risk-reduction strategies and gay apps can be used to recruit MSM for HIV research [ 10 ].

Given willingness among many MSM to access e-health resources, further research on the use of mobile apps for HIV prevention is warranted. In contrast, the non-app using cohort was more closeted, and less well educated, suggesting that they may not have had as much exposure to prevention messages and efforts compared to app users. Future programs targeting MSM could consider utilizing smartphone technology as a way to reach younger MSM, while being aware that such efforts may miss older, less well-educated MSM subpopulations. Shifting attitudes towards openness of sexual identity in the next generation of MSM suggests new campaigns might go beyond education to further organize and mobilize this subpopulation.

Seeking sex users asia

With lower testing rates as well as higher levels of condomless sex with women among non-app users, renewed efforts in condom promotion and testing uptake promotion campaigns would benefit this subpopulation. As they are not using gay apps, these messages will need to be emphasized through more traditional channels e. Internet-based, venue-based, social marketing. Our research has several limitations.

Seeking sex users asia

While high, this completion rate is similar to other online surveys [ 12 ] and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors of those who completed the survey and those who did not complete the survey were similar data not shown. As we did not collect unique identifiers, we were unable to exclude participants from taking the survey more than once. However, eligibility criteria required participants to indicate that they had not ly taken the survey, and the survey was entirely voluntary with no monetary incentives given, disincentivizing repeat participation.

The emergence of gay app use represents the most recent evolution of sexual risk environments from physical venues, bars, parks, clubs and bathhouses to computers and now smartphones. While we did not find gay app users to have increased sexual risk profiles compared to non-app users, increased smartphone access and lack of data on gay app use, especially among MSM in LMIC, highlight the need for further research.

Future research should continue to investigate risk factors and behaviors associated with gay app use as well as explore potential sexual health interventions. Thanks to Roger Meng for technical assistance and Dr. John Doucette at Mount Sinai for assistance with statistical analysis.

Seeking sex users asia

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. AIDS Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1. Cedric H. Tucker 1, 6. John M. Kathryn E. Joseph D. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Corresponding Author: Joseph D. Phone:Fax:ude. Copyright notice.

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Seeking sex users asia

Abstract Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries LMIC encourage men who have sex with men MSM partner-seeking mobile application gay app use. Keywords: mobile apps, men who have sex with men, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, China. Survey development To inform survey development, we conducted 60 individual interviews with MSM and local stakeholders and partnered with sociologists from the Chinese national survey of sexual behavior. Measures We collected socio-demographic data including age, education level, marital status, employment, and income.

Open in a separate window. Discussion Gay apps have rapidly expanded social networking and partner-seeking opportunities among MSM.

Seeking sex users asia

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