Seniors cyber sex

Added: Jamari Wyant - Date: 08.04.2022 14:29 - Views: 41056 - Clicks: 2166

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The datasets generated for this study will not be made publicly available as no quantitative data was collected, and the manuscripts may release person-identifiable information. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to the corresponding author. Retirement is a major life transition, which le to substantial changes across almost all aspects of day-to-day life.

Although this transition has ly been seen as the normative marker for entry into older adulthood, its influence on later life has remained relatively unstudied in terms of technology use and cybersecurity behaviours. This is problematic as older adults are at particular risk of becoming victims of cyber-crime. This study aimed to investigate which factors associated with the retirement transition were likely to increase vulnerability to cyber-attack in a sample of 12 United Kingdom based older adults, all of whom had retired within the past 5 years.

Seniors cyber sex

Semi-structured, one to one interviews were conducted and subsequently analysed using thematic analysis. Six themes were identified referring to areas of loss in: social interaction, finances, day-to-day routine, feelings of competence, sense of purpose, and technology support structures. We discuss the implications of these losses for building cyber-resilience in retirees, with suggestions for future research. Retirement is a major life transition in which nearly all aspects of life change Salovaara et al.

The retirement transition offers both challenges and opportunities and can be seen as a period of loss, reconstruction, and renegotiation of varying aspects of life Price, ; Salovaara et al. However, the rapid development and growth of technology provides a range of novel challenges and opportunities for those currently transitioning into retirement, and for those who will retire in the future.

Seniors cyber sex

Technology may provide benefits to retiring adults, offering a solution to difficulties in navigating the transition to retirement. Conversely, technology may lead to additional challenges for those transitioning into retirement, such as an increased vulnerability to online victimisation. This generation has lived through a digital revolution and are likely the first retirees to have used technology for a large part of their working lives Durrant et al. Their engagement with technology makes them the first generation who are likely to use technology before, during and well into retirement.

Technology use by this generation has steadily increased over time. Early research into technology use in older adults for example: Gregor et al. The concept and associated language, metaphors, and behaviours were unfamiliar to them, and they did not necessarily perceive the benefits of technology use. Many older adults now engage with online technologies to counteract loneliness and isolation Chopik,remain socially connected Hutto and Bell,interact with family, and enjoy a healthier retirement Khvorostianov et al. However, these benefits are associated with known costs in terms of an increased risk of online victimisation for this population Chakraborty et al.

All digital technology users are potential victims of cyber-attacks and may even unknowingly participate in those attacks Von Solms and Van Niekerk, Unsurprisingly, a growing body of cybersecurity research focusses on the role of the user. Here the drive is to understand the role of end-user behaviours and attitudes which range from authentication behaviours Nicholson et al. Despite this growing literature base, there remains a paucity of cybersecurity research that explores the older adult user, even though this population may be at increased risk from cybersecurity threats Grimes et al.

Retired, older adults are likely to be more susceptible to specific online threats. In a small scale qualitative study of three older adults, Olivier et al. Other research has identified an increased vulnerability to: telemarketing fraud Alves and Wilson,phishing Cho et al. Those born before are also more likely to perform fewer protection behaviours and are less confident in their own ability Jiang et al. In addition, Forget et al. Investigating these potential sources of vulnerability to cyber-attack is important, as these attacks can have a range of negative consequences at individual, community, and national levels Saini et al.

Additionally there are ethical implications for society as a whole, since the protection of vulnerable groups could be seen as a societal responsibility Von Solms and Van Niekerk, One challenge in this research space is the tendency to focus on chronological age as a defining characteristic of an individual.

Researchers tend to classify users into arbitrary age groups such as young children Guan and Huck,teenagers Wittes et al. Yet age is not a reliable marker for any particular user attribute, thus observing individuals based on chronological age not only risks research ageism Vines et al. This is particularly true when we consider retirement. Using semi-structured interviews with eight purposefully selected, recently retired individuals, Pettican and Prior found that retirement was identified as a new life stage, with retirement being a time of ificant re-adjustment, with changes influencing perceptions of both of health and wellbeing.

The varying retirement trajectories that retiring individuals face are likely to be diverse and based on a range of factors Seniors cyber sex as preparedness, planning, and the socio-economic circumstances surrounding the retirement transition. Inevitably, the post-retirement experiences of older adults are likely to vary greatly. A large scale systematic review by Barbosa et al. Their review demonstrates that the majority of research regarding the retirement transition revolves around physical and psychological health; however, a of other factors are important when considering the transition from the workplace into retirement.

Existing cybersecurity literature has so far failed to address the impact of retirement as a major life transition on technology use and cybersecurity vulnerability. However, some of the factors of retirement adjustment, as seen in Barbosa et al. For example, one factor identified within their review relates to finances and how financial strength influences retirement outcomes. Although it is likely that being in a strong financial position is beneficial in general when transitioning into retirement, it is likely that such financial strength might lead to increased targeting by cyber-criminals Oliveira et al.

Another such example relates to social integration, within the Barbosa et al. In an increasingly technological world, those who are isolated in older age may turn to social media and technology to reduce loneliness and isolation Nowland et al. It is clear that a of the factors associated with retirement might influence technology usage and as such may contribute towards Seniors cyber sex vulnerability in retirement; however, there is presently very little research in this area.

In a 4-week qualitative study, Durrant et al. Although they identified some security concerns relating to this technology use, very little research has looked at how these transitions, and the changing nature of this technology use might influence vulnerability to cyber-attacks. Henkens et al. While these research areas are undoubtedly important to aiding and understanding the retirement transition, we suggest that a fourth area is important but remains unaddressed — how the retirement transition can lead to increased cybersecurity vulnerability.

In this study, we aim to explore how interaction with technology changes, in both online and offline environments, as a result of the retirement transition. Furthermore, we draw from a cybersecurity literature to demonstrate how these changes are associated with the implicit cybersecurity vulnerabilities that we see in older adult populations. In doing so, we seek to provide a foundation for future work that investigates how retirement, as a major life transition, might act as an antecedent to cybersecurity vulnerabilities in post-retirement life.

Face to face and online sampling methods were used to search for eligible participants. A post was placed on Facebook in Januarywhich asked directly for participants, but also requested that people snowball on the recruitment information to anyone who might be eligible to take part. Although we did not originally specify a specific of participants prior to conducting the study, due to the difficulty in establishing such measures Levitt et al. The of participants involved in this study is in-line with a range of existing qualitative studies in the area of cybersecurity Olivier et al. The sample consisted of seven females aged 59—74 years and five males aged 53—68 years see Table 1 who met the criteria; that they had experience in using technology, and had retired within the past 5 years.

These participants were from a diverse range of backgrounds with varying technical expertise ranging from careers in retail through to engineering. An interview schedule was created based on factors identified within the Barbosa et al. First, the 26 factors of retirement research were screened to identify which factors were likely to influence changes in technology usage or increase cybersecurity vulnerability in any way. Of the 26 factors attributed to retirement adjustment, these six factors were seen not only to be related to retirement, but likely to have some influence on technology usage.

Interviews began by asking the participant to outline what had happened to them during their transition from the workplace into retirement. The interview then went on to ask what the biggest changes were across their retirement Seniors cyber sex and what impact these changes had had on their day-to-day lives.

The known factors, which were likely to change as a result of the retirement transition, were included as prompts within the interview to stimulate discussion. Prompts around computer and technology use were also included to stimulate relevant discourse. Ethical approval was obtained from the psychology ethics board within the University of Northumbria at Newcastle upon Tyne.

During the interview, if a participant had mentioned a specific digital device, or if it was present in the room, they were asked if they could talk about how they used the device, and if they would show the researcher the sorts of apps or software packages that they typically used.

Interviews took approximately 1 h and were structured around three main topics: 1 what participants experienced in the lead up to their retirement, 2 what the participant saw as the biggest changes to their Seniors cyber sex over this period, and the reasons behind this, and 3 if and how the participants online behaviour had changed across the retirement transition.

Halfway through coding, and following discussion of the data with other authors, these themes were revised, resulting in a final set of six themes described below. During the coding phases, it became clear that emerging themes generally related to areas of loss rather than change, and thus the initial template was revised to reflect this. Losses were typically accompanied by compensatory behaviours, which, in some cases, contributed towards cybersecurity vulnerabilities in older adults.

Each area of loss also carried with it emotional implications, which may have been the driving force behind attempts to remedy these losses. Our participants had typically made the transition from working full time around For some, the loss of colleague interaction Seniors cyber sex immediately, as they had chosen not to maintain contact with colleagues. Others described their attempts to keep in touch with colleagues, although this too gradually deteriorated over a period of time. P6: I did socialise with people from work. Nearly all participants described a vacuum in their social infrastructure.

For many, social interaction had revolved almost entirely around work colleagues, and this meant that rebuilding social interaction post-retirement was difficult.

Seniors cyber sex

P1: A lot of nursey people do hang about with nurses, so when you stop doing that you find that trying to spread your group of friends a bit wider is a bit tricky. This loss led to increased feelings of isolation and loneliness in many participants.

This was especially apparent when the loss of social interaction felt like a slow process of neglect. Generally, social loss was seen as Seniors cyber sex negative. This finding is not surprising and is entirely consistent with the observations of Kloep and Hendrywho demonstrated that people who become attached to colleagues are unhappy at losing them as part of their social infrastructure. Dorfman argued that the loss of colleague interaction was rated as the most negative aspect of retirement.

Nahum-Shani and Bamberger found that in those with a large of working hours, retirement not only led to a loss of colleagues, but also led to a decrease in emotional support overall, i. It may be that people look to refill this social loss not only for interaction, but also for the emotional support it provided. In compensation, participants sought out new social opportunities via taking on new hobbies, ing groups, volunteering, and providing support for the family.

For those who were married, a renegotiation of the marital relationship was required to establish whether this loss of colleague interaction would be replaced by more time spent together.

Seniors cyber sex

email: [email protected] - phone:(963) 671-9251 x 6924

Seniors cyber sex